Crossroads of Faith and Civic Duty: The Political Significance of October

21th Sunday after Pentecost - 10/22/2023 | Matthew 22:15-22 ESV

Hail Caesar? 

October, with its brisk autumn air and the charm of harvest season, often brings to mind thoughts of hunting, fishing, and the World Series. However, beneath this veneer of fall's allure lies a significance that transcends the changing leaves.

This month is when the political stage takes the spotlight, setting the scene for the impending November elections. On the national level, October becomes a battleground for discussions on immigration, allegations of corruption, international conflicts, and the selection of the Speaker of the House.

The Complexities of Faith and Civic Duty

In the 21st-century political landscape, complexities and controversies abound. Yet, the intricate interplay between faith and civic responsibility that we observe today is not entirely dissimilar from historical dynamics. In our reflection, we embark on a journey to explore a profound exchange between Jesus and the Pharisees, shedding light on the intricate relationship between faith and civic duty.

A Provocative Question

As documented in the Gospel of Matthew, the Pharisees confronted Jesus with a provocative question: "Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?" (Matthew 22:17). Their intentions were far from pure. They sought to ensnare Him, forcing a response that would either alienate Him from His followers or draw the ire of Roman authorities.

If Jesus answered "yes," it could incite resentment among His supporters who detested Roman taxation. Conversely, a negative response might provoke Roman officials. The Pharisees believed they had set a trap from which Jesus could not escape.

Jesus’ Profound Response

Unperturbed by their duplicity, Jesus astutely identified the Pharisees as hypocrites and probed their true intentions. He then requested a coin used for paying the tax. 

Whose image and inscription adorned it? The coin bore Caesar's image and inscription. Jesus replied, "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's and to God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:21).

This seemingly simple yet profoundly insightful statement left everyone, including Jesus' adversaries, astonished. Jesus not only acknowledged the state's authority to levy taxes but also elevated the bar, urging all, whether rulers or citizens, to accord God the honor and devotion rightfully His.

The Pharisees' Oversight

Paradoxically, while the Pharisees aimed to ensnare Jesus within the web of Roman authority, they failed to recognize the distinction between the temporal and spiritual kingdoms. They harbored resentment towards Roman rule and actively sought to undermine it.

The Pharisees overlooked the fact that both the worldly and spiritual kingdoms were divinely ordained. The temporal realm, governed by laws and the sword, was established to maintain temporal well-being, while the Kingdom of God focused on the spiritual and eternal.

Honoring Civil Authority

Despite the skepticism and discontent often directed at contemporary governments, Jesus' response underscores the importance of respecting civil authority. Paying taxes is neither unchristian nor un-American. ‘

Engaging in discussions about the extent of government involvement in our lives is essential. Yet, it remains indisputable that governments possess God-given authority to govern and levy taxes.

Two Distinct Kingdoms

The fact that Jesus emphasized rendering unto both Caesar and God highlights the existence of two distinct kingdoms, each deserving of respect, honor, devotion, participation, and support in its own right. While some voices may argue that only God's kingdom holds significance and that government is entirely man-made, Jesus' teachings counter this notion.

Our Responsibility as Christians

It is incumbent upon Christians to acknowledge that the physical realm is God's creation, redeemed through Jesus Christ. God's compassionate concern for this realm is evident in the Incarnation, where Jesus assumed human form to sanctify both the physical and spiritual.

The fall into sin subjected creation to chaos, evil, and death. Unrestrained human sin would lead to destruction. Thus, God established civil authority to maintain order, security, and justice.

Martin Luther's Wisdom

Martin Luther's wisdom regarding temporal authority underscores the necessity of such governance. Temporal rulers possess authority over temporal affairs, a jurisdiction that should be respected. However, when they overstep their boundaries, particularly in spiritual matters, citizens must prioritize obedience to God over human authorities.

Striking the Balance

Striking the delicate balance between honoring earthly authority, symbolized by Caesar, and remaining steadfast in our devotion to God is a perpetual challenge for all citizens of both the physical and spiritual realms. As Christians, we grapple with the complexity of harmonizing our faith commitments with civic responsibilities, which at times may lead to difficult decisions about how to act.

It's essential to recognize that this interplay between faith and civic duty also offers great hope. Drawing inspiration from the teachings of Jesus and the examples set by Christians throughout history, we can find guidance in navigating this delicate equilibrium. In doing so, we are enabled to live out our faith in both the temporal and eternal spheres.

May God enable us to rightly Hail the Caesar of our physical realm by giving to him what is his by divine command, but at the same time, to give the full praise of faith through all our thoughts, words and actions to our God and Lord, Jesus Christ, who is deserving of them as our Creator and Redeemer! Amen.

More 2023 Pentecost Sermons

The Key to God's Kingdom Revealed

Victory through Loss

Enduring Struggle with Authority

Navigating American Citizenship

Lessons of Forgiveness


Sermons from Trinity Lutheran Church in Miles City, MT