10 Commandments

10 Commandments in the Old Testament and New Testament


Moses and the Ten Commandments

Moses and the 10 Commandments, Exodus 20

This brief article will assist you in studying the 10 commandments and applying them in your everyday life. We will discuss Old Testament Bible verses about the 10 Commandments and also the New Testament Bible verses about the 10 Commandments.

After all, the New Testament is replete with instructions on observing the 10 Commandments.

When we consider the 10 Commandments, we frequently imagine Moses descending from Mount Sinai carrying blocks of stone inscribed with God's very finger. After discovering the people worshiping a golden calf, Moses hurled down the tablets, smashing them into fragments at the bottom of the mountain (Exodus 32). That was not the extent of the 10 Commandments. Β It was only the beginning.

New Testament Bible Verses about the 10 Commandments

While we do not find a readily compiled list of the 10 Commandments in the New Testament as found in Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5, we can see through the teachings of Jesus and His disciples that the 10 Commandments apply to us at this time, today. The 10 Commandments are given here, along with Old Testament and New Testament texts where they are cited and taught. There are instances where they are summarized or referenced as a whole.

Why Should We Study the 10 Commandments?

When we evaluate ourselves in light of the 10 Commandments, we realize the sin in our lives. Sin takes a gift from God and uses it in a way that is detrimental to our existence. Β The law instructs us how to use God's gifts to His greater glory.

The First Commandment: You Shall Have No Other Gods Before the One True Triune God.

The Triune God is the one true God. All others are to be despised. Trust Him, come boldly to His throne, and only praise Him.

When the heart is well with God, all other precepts follow. When we sin, it is a sign that the human heart has turned away from God by nature. Β He created us to be His possession. He has offered Himself to us through our Lord Jesus Christ.

Anything that captures our greatest devotion, dreams, or deepest passion becomes an idol and assumes God's place in our life. The Holy Spirit works in our hearts with real fear, love, and faith in God above all else via the Word and Sacraments.

Old Testament Bible Verses about the First Commandment

Isaiah 42:8 β€” "I am the Lord; that is my name, and I will not give my glory to another, nor my praise to graven images."

Proverbs 11:28 β€” Those who trust in their riches will fall, but the righteous will thrive like a green leaf.

Psalm 118:8 β€” It is better to trust the Lord than to put confidence in man.

New Testament Bible Verses about the First Commandment

Acts 14:8-15 β€” Paul and Barnabas rend their clothing at the possibility of being regarded as gods.

Acts 17:22–25 β€” Paul demonstrates that the gods worshiped in Athens are ineffective.

Matthew 6:24 β€” Jesus explains that we can only obey God.

Matthew 19:17 β€” Jesus declares that there is only one God who is good.

Matthew 22:37-38 β€” Jesus explains that the first and greatest commandment is to love God above everything else.

Revelation 19:19-21 β€” At the end of the tribulation, people will perish forever for worshiping the beast and false prophet, among other sins.

The Second Commandment: You Shall not Take the Name of Your Lord in Vain.

Do not desecrate my holy name or debase my Word. Praise only what I say and do as being excellent and truthful.

Baptism in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is a remarkable gift. Our Lord's name is greater than any other name in heaven or earth. With God's name comes His ability to rescue. It is wrong to use the name of God as an unfavorable word, to swear by it for deceptive or foolish motives, or to mislead others about His Word.

It is reassuring to know that we can call on and petition in the Lord's name at any moment, in any situation, for any need. We declare His praise while we pray and express thanks in His holy name because the Lord opens our mouths.

Old Testament Bible Verses about the Second Commandment

Exodus 20:7 β€” You will not misuse the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will not absolve those who defile his name.

Jeremiah 23:32 β€” I am against those who predict false dreams and visions. They misled my people with reckless falsehoods, even though I did not send or appoint them.

Leviticus 19:12 β€” Do not profane the name of your God.

Leviticus 24:15 β€” Tell the Israelites that those who blaspheme their God will be held accountable.

Psalm 50:5 β€” Bring this sanctified people to me, who established a sacrificial covenant with me.

Psalm 103:1 β€” Worship the Lord, my soul; praise his holy name with all my being.

New Testament Bible Verses about the Second Commandment

Matthew 5:33–37 β€” To swear by God or anything else is the work of the wicked one.

Matthew 23:16-21 β€” Jesus criticizes people who swear oaths by the temple or heaven, explaining that they are swearing by God. He exposes all their swearing as futile when he calls the organization hypocritical.

James 5:12 β€” James verifies what Jesus stated in Matthew 5:33-37.

The Third Commandment: Remember the Sabbath Day to Keep it Holy.

Worship so that peace may enter your life, and pray, putting aside your labor so that God may work in you. He has bestowed upon us the gift of His Word. We revere God when we gratefully hear and keep His Word. We also honor the Word when we employ it in our daily prayer. Sometimes, it may be easy to believe that one can be a good Christian without attending church. That is the same as saying, "I do not need to feed myself to survive." How long can one go without eating? We attend church because God is working in us via His gifts to make us revere His Word and eagerly hear and understand it.

Old Testament Bible Verses about the Third Commandment

Isaiah 66:2 β€” "My hand created all of these things, and so they came to be." declares the Lord. Β The humble and contrite in heart, and those who quiver at my Word, are the ones I favor.

Psalm 26:28 β€” Lord, I adore your habitation where your splendor dwells.

New Testament Bible Verses about the Third Commandment

Acts 13:42-44; Acts 17:1-3 β€” On the Sabbath, the disciples teach and instruct.

Colossians 2:16 β€” Do not let anyone judge you for observing the Sabbath.

Hebrews 4:9 β€” The Sabbath is a day of rest for God's people.

Luke 4:16 β€” Jesus observes the Sabbath.

Mark 2:27–28 β€” Jesus teaches that the Sabbath was made for man and that He is the Lord of the Sabbath.

The Fourth Commandment: Honor Your Father and Mother.

You must honor and obey your parents and masters, serving them in whatever way that comes to hand; otherwise, you will not live a long life. God has provided us with parents, pastors, teachers, mentors, and other authorities for our benefit. They function as His emissaries. God lavishly provides us and our environment with orderly authority, as opposed to the chaos that sin produces. We honor Him by respecting our parents and those in positions of authority.

Old Testament Bible Verses about the Fourth Commandment

Proverbs 23:22 β€” Pay attention to your father, and do not scorn your mother when she is elderly.

New Testament Bible Verses about the Fourth Commandment

Colossians 3:20 β€” It pleases God when children obey their parents.

Ephesians 6:1-2 β€” Paul emphasizes the importance of children obeying their parents in a Godly manner, and it is the right thing to do.

Matthew 15:4, Matthew 19:19 β€” God commands us to honor our father and mother, and that those who speak evil of them should be put to death. Matthew 19:19 states that we should honor our father and mother, and love our neighbor as ourselves.Β 

2 Timothy 3:2 β€” Paul warns that during the end times, children will be rebellious to their parents.

The Fifth Commandment: You Shall Not Commit Murder.

Do not be angry, do not injure, kill, hate, and do not repay wrong behavior with wrong behavior. Be kind, and patient, and persuade your adversary that you are considerate and forgiving.

Human life is the most precious gift of God's creation. Human life should not be ended through murder, abortion, euthanasia, or suicide. Prejudice, intolerance, and maltreatment of those who are less fortunate are all prohibited. We recognize that we may kill someone with our thoughts, words, and, most dramatically, our actions.

Old Testament Bible Verses about the Fifth Commandment

Genesis 9:6 β€” Whoever sheds human blood, by humans shall their blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made mankind.

Proverbs 31:8 β€” Speak for those unable to speak for themselves and the rights of all impoverished people.

New Testament Bible Verses about the Fifth Commandment

Acts 22:16-20 β€” Paul confesses his faults, including his participation in Stephen's death.

1 John 3:15 β€” Murderers will not receive eternal life.

Matthew 5:21-22 β€” Jesus expands on this to encompass hatred and rage.

Matthew 19:18 β€” Jesus explains this clearly.

Revelation 21:8 β€” Murderers will receive eternal punishment.

Romans 13:9 β€” Paul explicitly explains.

The Sixth Commandment: You Shall not Commit Adultery.

Be faithful and uphold the marital promise; wandering thoughts are not permitted. Keep your entire behavior sin-free. Be self-controlling and disciplined.

Marriage, sexuality, and family are all blessings from God. When our thoughts, words, and behaviors fall short of the sexual morality God requires of married and unmarried people, we violate this law. God desires all individuals, married and unmarried, to recognize and defend marriage as His gift. We are free in Christ to live pure and moral lives to honor and appreciate the husband or wife God grants us.

Old Testament Bible Verses about the Sixth Commandment

Genesis 2:24 β€” That is why a man leaves his father and mother and marries his bride, becoming one flesh.

New Testament Bible Verses about the Sixth Commandment

1 Corinthians 6:9-10 β€” Paul explains that adulterers will not inherit God's Kingdom.

Matthew 19:8-9 β€” Jesus advises against adultery and divorce.

Matthew 19:18 β€” Jesus explains this.

Romans 13:9 β€” Paul explains.

Revelation 21:8 β€” Adulterers shall receive eternal punishment.

The Seventh Commandment:Β You Shall not Steal.

You must not steal or swindle away what others have worked for all day and night. Extend a compassionate hand to feed the hungry people in the land.

Everything we have is a blessing from God, a trust that He has placed in us to use for His honor and glory. That is reversed when we apply extreme measures to obtain what we desire. Christians are led by the Holy Spirit not to steal or cheat. We must do what is required to assist others in maintaining what is rightfully theirs.

Old Testament Bible Verses about the Seventh Commandment

Leviticus 6:1-5 β€” God explains this clearly to Moses.

New Testament Bible Verses about the Seventh Commandment

1 Corinthians 6:9-10 β€” Paul explains that thieves will not inherit the Kingdom.

Ephesians 4:28 β€” Individuals who were once guilty of theft should refrain from stealing.

Matthew 19:18 β€” Jesus explains this clearly.

Romans 13:9 β€” Paul explains reference.

The Eighth Commandment: You Shall not Bear False Witness Against Your Neighbor.

Never be a liar or poison your lips with slander. The hug of innocence, the fallen shield against shame.

Another gift from God is our excellent reputation. We must speak about individuals or situations in such a way that we are putting the best construction on them and considering them in the best possible way, just as God regards us with mercy and compassion through Christ our Lord.

New Testament Bible Verses about the Eighth Commandment

Acts 5:1 β€” Ananias and Sapphira died because they lied to God.

Ephesians 4:25 β€” Reject deception and speak truthfully to your neighbor, for we are all members of the same body.

Matthew 19:18 β€” Jesus explains this.

1 Peter 4:8 β€” Above all, truly love one another, for love covers a multitude of sins.

Revelation 21:8 β€” Unrepentant liars will spend eternity in punishment.

The Ninth and Tenth Commandments: You Shall not Covet.

You are not to covet your neighbor's home. Do not desire your neighbor's spouse, servants, business, material belongings, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.

As you desire prosperity, ask God to bless your neighbor. The emphasis of the last two commandments is contentment with the material blessings God has given us.

We should assist our neighbors by wishing them well, celebrating their good fortune, or supporting them in times of need. Christ served us. Likewise, we should also serve others. With these last two commandments, we return to the first, for the heart that fears, loves, and trusts in God is happy with the blessings God offers.

New Testament Bible Verses about the Ninth and Tenth Commandments

Ephesians 5:3-5 β€” Paul warns that covetous individuals will not inherit God's Kingdom.

Hebrews 13:5 β€” Keep the love of money out of your life and be satisfied with what you have, since God has spoken, "I will never leave you; I will never forsake you."

James 4:1-3 β€” Coveting leads to disputes and wars.

Luke 12:15 β€” Jesus warns against covetousness.

Matthew 6:19-21 β€” Jesus advises not to place hope in material things.

The 10 Commandments in Summary

The New Testament is abundant with instructions and lessons on how to apply the 10 Commandments from Exodus 20 in the Old Testament to apply to our daily lives. There are various occasions when the 10 Commandments are summarized or presented in broad strokes:

1 Corinthians 7:19 β€” Paul states that obeying the law matters to God.

1 John 5:3 β€” John informs us that God's children obey His instructions, and His teachings are not oppressive.

John 14:15 β€” Christ explains that if we love Him, we will keep His commandments.

Matthew 22:37-40 β€” Jesus simplifies everything into the two greatest commandments.

Revelation 2:10 β€” The believers who remain faithful unto death will receive the crown of life.

Romans 7:7 β€” The law teaches us what sin is.

Romans 7:12 β€”The law is holy, righteous, and beneficial.

What Role Does God Play in Our Lives as a Result of the 10 Commandments from Exodus 20?

We read God's law as written in Exodus 20 to understand that we have not been free of sin and how pure we should be before God. Β Lord Jesus, help us in our hour of need; Christ, you are our intercessor. matter how sinful, impaired, or unfair our acts are, you are our only hope and faith.

What Questions Should We Consider When We Examine Ourselves?

Do I fear, love, or trust in anything or anybody other than the Triune God?

Have I put the Lord's name on my lips and in my actions?

Have I joyfully kept His Word sacred, listened intently to its message, and put it into practice in my daily life?

Have I respected and followed all authority placed in my path?

Have I kept the purity of my marital and sexual life in my thoughts, words, and actions?

Have I stolen property or failed to assist my neighbor in protecting his?

Have I participated in gossip by listening to it or spreading it myself?

Have I been satisfied with what the Lord has given me?

The Holy Spirit utilizes the law, as written in the Old Testament - Exodus 20 to make us recognize how much we need the forgiveness that Christ gained for the world and now distributes via His Word and Sacraments. The Gospel calls us to turn to Christ, our only hope because He fulfilled the Law and died to atone for our sins. Death was defeated by His resurrection. We are the Lord's precious children through Christ.

As a result, God employs His law in three ways: First, as a brake to limit outbursts of sin. Second, and most significantly, to serve as a mirror, reflecting our transgressions and our need for a Savior. Lastly, the 10 Commandments serve as a counselor, to teach us what pleases Him. Living in the pardon earned by Christ, we pray, "Lord have mercy!" throughout our lives.

The 10 Commandments, Preaching through Luther's Small Catechism

Part 1Β 

Part 2